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 article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)

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jean claude
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MessageSujet: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 14:13

Odor perception in patients with mood disorders.



Sandrine Lombion-Pouthier*, Pierre Vandel**, Sylvie Nezelof**, Emannuel Haffen** and Jean-Louis Millot*



* Laboratoire de Neurosciences, Place Leclerc, Université de Franche-Comté.

25030 Besançon Cedex. France

**Fédération de Psychiatrie et Psychologie Médicales, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire St Jacques. 25030 Besançon Cedex. France






Abstract





Backgrounds: Olfaction has obvious correlates with emotional processes but little is known about the several aspects of olfaction in psychiatric disorders characterized by mood disturbance. This research aims at pointing out the specificities of olfactory perception in patients in order to identify the specific cerebral impairments involved in these disorders.



Methods: Olfactory sensitivity, detection, identification, self-evaluation of intensity and pleasantness have been recorded in a control group of healthy subjects (N=58) and in three sample populations admitted to a Psychiatry Department: depressive patients (N=49), anorectic patients (N=17), and patients suffering from addiction to alcohol or drugs (N=21).



Results: Depressive patients have a poor sensitivity, poor detection abilities but over-evaluate the pleasantness of odors. Anorectic patients have a high sensitivity, over-evaluate the intensities of the odors but under-evaluate their pleasantness. Alcoholic/drug addicted patients showed impairments in identification.



Limitation: This study does not identify inter-individual differences in olfactory perception.



Conclusion: The psychiatric diseases, here at hand although every one of them may be characterized by depressive components, show diverging impairments in olfactory perception. When variations in sensitivity are usually attributed to peripheral cues, impairments in emotional and cognitive aspects of olfaction are typically related to specific brain structures and processes which could be particularly involved in these diseases.





Keywords: odor; depression; anorexia; alcoholism; drug addiction

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MessageSujet: Re: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 14:14

si une personne pourrait traduire l'article en français
ça serait chouette! :D

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MessageSujet: Re: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 17:36

jean claude a écrit:
si une personne pourrait traduire l'article en français
ça serait chouette! :D


coucou, j'ai utilisé une traduction automatique donc à peaufiner..
bises

Milieux : L'olfaction a des corrélations évidentes avec des processus émotifs mais peu est connu au sujet des multiples aspects de l'olfaction dans des désordres psychiatriques caractérisés par perturbation d'humeur. Cette recherche vise à préciser les spécificités de la perception olfactive dans les patients afin d'identifier les affaiblissements cérébraux spécifiques impliqués dans ces désordres.



Méthodes: La sensibilité olfactive, la détection, l'identification, l'auto-évaluation de l'intensité et l'agrément ont été enregistrés dans un groupe de commande de sujets en bonne santé (N=5 et dans trois populations témoin admises à un service de psychiatrie : patients dépressifs (N=49), patients anorectiques (N=17), et patients souffrant du penchant à l'alcool ou aux drogues (N=21).



Résultats : Les patients dépressifs ont une sensibilité pauvre, des capacités pauvres de détection mais au-dessus-évaluent l'agrément des odeurs. Les patients anorectiques ont une sensibilité élevée, au-dessus-évaluent les intensités des odeurs mais sous-évaluent leur agrément. Les patients intoxiqués d'alcoolique /drogue ont montré des affaiblissements dans l'identification.



Limitation : Cette étude n'identifie pas des différences interindividuelles dans la perception olfactive.



Conclusion : Les maladies psychiatriques, ici actuelles bien que des chaque d'entre elles puissent être caractérisés par les composants dépressifs, montrent des affaiblissements de divergence dans la perception olfactive. Quand des variations de la sensibilité sont habituellement attribuées aux sélections périphériques, des affaiblissements dans des aspects émotifs et cognitifs de l'olfaction sont typiquement liés aux structures et aux processus spécifiques de cerveau qui pourraient être en particulier impliqués dans ces maladies.





Mots-clés : odeur ; dépression ; anorexie ; alcoolisme ; penchant de drogue

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MessageSujet: Re: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 19:58

c'est le résumé ... je n'ai pas le temps de lire la trad' de Tite val mais si vous avez des questions je suis là lol
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MessageSujet: Re: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 19:59

bon et si je me dépatouille de ma flémingite aigue ... je vous résumerez le tout de manière explicite ...
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jean claude
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Date d'inscription : 11/11/2004

MessageSujet: Re: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 20:01

Odor perception in patients with mood disorders.



Sandrine Lombion-Pouthier*, Pierre Vandel**, Sylvie Nezelof**, Emannuel Haffen** and Jean-Louis Millot*



* Laboratoire de Neurosciences, Place Leclerc, Université de Franche-Comté.

25030 Besançon Cedex. France

**Fédération de Psychiatrie et Psychologie Médicales, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire St Jacques. 25030 Besançon Cedex. France






Abstract





Backgrounds: Olfaction has obvious correlates with emotional processes but little is known about the several aspects of olfaction in psychiatric disorders characterized by mood disturbance. This research aims at pointing out the specificities of olfactory perception in patients in order to identify the specific cerebral impairments involved in these disorders.



Methods: Olfactory sensitivity, detection, identification, self-evaluation of intensity and pleasantness have been recorded in a control group of healthy subjects (N=58) and in three sample populations admitted to a Psychiatry Department: depressive patients (N=49), anorectic patients (N=17), and patients suffering from addiction to alcohol or drugs (N=21).



Results: Depressive patients have a poor sensitivity, poor detection abilities but over-evaluate the pleasantness of odors. Anorectic patients have a high sensitivity, over-evaluate the intensities of the odors but under-evaluate their pleasantness. Alcoholic/drug addicted patients showed impairments in identification.



Limitation: This study does not identify inter-individual differences in olfactory perception.



Conclusion: The psychiatric diseases, here at hand although every one of them may be characterized by depressive components, show diverging impairments in olfactory perception. When variations in sensitivity are usually attributed to peripheral cues, impairments in emotional and cognitive aspects of olfaction are typically related to specific brain structures and processes which could be particularly involved in these diseases.





Keywords: odor; depression; anorexia; alcoholism; drug addiction























Introduction:



The sense of smell can be considered as being unique for its high capacity to interfere with emotions and mood (Ludvigson and Rottman, 1989; Millot and Brand, 2001; Miltner et al., 1994; Van Toller, 1988; Schiffman et al., 1995). The connections of olfactory pathways with direct projections to the limbic system are usually put forward to explain these correlates (Brand et al., 2001; Rolls et al., 2003; Royet et al., 2001; Savic, 2001).

Considering this background, one may wonder which characteristics of olfactory perception in subjects affected by emotional disturbances may be observed, as it is the case in psychiatric disorders. Apart from schizophrenia (Moberg et al., 1999; Minor et al., 2004; Turetsky et al., 2003) little is known about other diseases with emotional dysfunctions. Mood disorders are salient in Major Depression, and frequently reported in alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders (Corcos et al., 2000). Testing the identification ability of depressed patients, Amsterdam et al. (1987) did not find any significant differences with control subjects. These results were confirmed by Warner et al. (1990) and by Settle and Amsterdam (1991). But Serby et al. (1990, 1992), Steiner et al. (1993) noted lowered scores in identification. A recent study (Pause et al., 2001) concluded to a reduced sensitivity in these patients.

Concerning other diseases with mood disorders, Rupp et al. (2003) noted lowered scores in sensitivity, discrimination and identification in patients with alcohol dependence compared to control subjects. Reduced odor identification abilities had previously been shown in these patients (DiTraglia et al., 1991; Shear et al., 1992). Fedoroff et al. (1995) mentioned olfactory impairment in very low-weight anorectics for sensitivity and identification. In contrast, Kopala et al. (1995) did not find any differences in identification between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Roessner et al. (2005) did not confirm deficits in identification, but mentioned deficits in sensitivity and discrimination in anorexia nervosa.

None of these studies explored simultaneously the different aspects (sensitivity, detection, intensity, pleasantness, identification…) which are usually assigned to olfactory perception. Furthermore, most studies used a few of different odors. In that way, considering the numerous inter-individual differences in olfactory perception, the differences of methods and odors tested could explain some discrepant conclusions between the studies as it is frequent in this area of research (Brand and Millot, 2001).

The aim of this present study is to characterize and compare the usual psychophysical dimensions of olfaction in groups of patients affected by these psychiatric disorders. The further challenge is to explain the specific differences observed when checking the data about the brain substrates of olfactory perception and those of these psychiatric diseases, when they are identified.






Methods and Materials





Subjects:

We have considered a control population and three sample populations according to the medical diagnosis (DSM IV). All the patients were admitted to the Psychiatry Department of the Hopital de Besançon (East of France) when the data were collected.

- A sample population of depressive patients included 49 subjects (age: mean = 43.4 years and SD=17.54: 35 females). The criteria of inclusion was the one and only diagnosis of severe depression, without other psychiatric diseases. The mean of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scores was 23.75 (SD=5.74).

- A sample population of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype, included 17 females (mean age=22.7; SD=6.86). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 14.59 (SD=2.58) and the mean BDI was 17.33 (SD=5.34).

- A sample population of patients suffering from alcohol or drug addiction (N = 21: 9 females; mean age=38.47; SD=13.06; 12 of them were alcoholic and 9 were addicted to drugs). The mean BDI was 14.9 (SD=10.7). They were not suffering of other psychiatric diseases or cognitive impairments.

- Healthy subjects (N=58) were recruited to constitute a control group approximately matched with the hospitalised group for sex, age and smoking habits (36 females; age: mean 38.4; SD= 13.96). These subjects described themselves without history of psychiatric or neurological disorders.

All participants gave written consent, and the study was approved by the local ethical committee for clinical studies.


Procedures of olfactory testing





The study of the olfactory perception was performed by means of the "Test Olfactif", conceived by EZUS (University Lyon II, Fr.) for measures of olfactory perception with a French population (Thomas-Danguin et al., 2003).

This test evaluates firstly the olfactory sensitivity with 2 odors: L-carvone (a menthol like odor) and tetrahydrothiophene (an additive odor for gas), with a forced choice procedure for 5 successive concentrations. Taking into account the results for both odors, a score is attributed between 2 (high sensitivity) to 10 (low sensitivity).

Secondly, the test evaluates the detection and identification abilities with a panel of 16 odors (vanilla, lavender, eucalyptus, fuel, fish, violet, garlic, grass, orange, apple, cinnamon, lemon, anise, mulberry, chewing-gum, mint). For each of them, the subjects designed the bottle with an odor among four bottles (detection test) and then choosed its correct label among a list of four names (identification test).

Furthermore, we added to this routine test self-ratings of intensity and hedonic valence on linear scales graduated from 0 (low intensity; displeasure) to 10 (high intensity; pleasure) for each of these 16 odors..


Results





Olfactory sensitivity (see table 1):

An ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the groups (F(3, 141)=5.692; P=.001). The post-hoc comparisons (Fischer PLSD) established significant differences between control group and depressive patients (P<.035), or anorectics (P<.011), and between anorectics and depressive patients (P<.001), or alcohol/drug addicted patients (P<.034).



Detection ability:

The percentages of subjects giving at least one erroneous response were of 2.5 % for the control group, 14% for the depressive patients, 12% for the anorexics, 14% for the alcohol or drug addicted patients. One can note a trend to a difference when control and depressive groups were compared (c2 = 3.07; P<.1).



Identification ability:

The percentages of subjects who failed in giving the correct identity of at least one of the 16 odors were 69% for the sample group, 69% for depressive patients, 70% for anorectics and 90% for alcohol or drug addicted patients. When control and alcohol/drug addicted groups are compared, with a c2 (=3.73) test revealed a trend to a difference (P<.1).






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MessageSujet: Re: article paru dans un magazine... sandrine (rose)   Mer 16 Mai - 20:02

Discussion





Depressive patients have a poor sensitivity as Pause et al. (2001) concluded. Considering that that their scores in identification are similar to those of the control group, it can be believed that their low sensitivity could be the only cause of their poor detection ability.

Their ratings of pleasantness seem surprising as they usually experienced negatively emotional cues. The study of Pause et al. (2001) was the only one which evaluated intensity and hedonics ratings for a set of 10 odorants. These authors observed a trend to differ for the valence ratings of one odor (citral) perceived as more pleasant by the depressive than by the control subjects and explained it by relaxing properties of lemon-like odor (Lawless, 1991). As the present data show over-evaluation of the valence of other odors, it would be better to suggest a functional consequence of the brain processes underlying depressive states. Olfactory pathways are firstly limbic afferents, on the contrary of others sensorial cues. Thus the negative emotions reported usually in response to visual, verbal stimuli could be attributed to the neo-cortical level of cognitive analysis which is mainly involved and not to the limbic level. An alternative hypothesis could involve dysfunctions in the orbito-frontal cortex, described as a second olfactory cortex in tasks of hedonics evaluation of odors (Savic, 2001) and its activity seems also increased in depressive states (Drevets, 1998; Pause et al, 2003).



Anorectic patients show also specificities in olfactory perception insofar they have a high sensitivity. They are typically young females and it is well known that olfaction sensitivity is better in young adults and in females (Wysocki and Gilbert, 1989). But the significant difference in the present study could be also due to additive characteristics of this disease: such as a correlate of a high level of arousal. Furthermore, studies have shown that food deprivation modulate electrical activity in the olfactory bulb and enhance olfactory sensitivity (Pager et al., 1972). On the contrary, Fedoroff et al. (1995), Roessner et al. (2005) pointed out a poor sensitivity in very low-weight anorexics and attributed it to a decrease in cell renewal of the olfactory epithelium due to long-lasting starvations. It can be assumed that this peripheral dysfunction was not generally present in the present population and that differences in the duration of the starvation between studied populations are here to be considered.

Their high sensitivity can merely explain their over-evaluation of odorant intensities and their lower score of hedonic valence. But this last one can be also explained by their usual anhedonic feeling as they report usually low hedonic response to flavour (Roessner et al., 2005).



Patients suffering from alcohol/drugs dependency have rather poor sensitivity and identification abilities. Considering that their intensity and hedonic evaluations are similar to those of the control group, it could be suggested some dysfunctions of specific cerebral or peripheral systems involved in the sensitivity and in the identification. Loss of sensitivity could be typically related to dysfunctions in the olfatory mucosa (cell renewal). Impairments in identification could result from the low sensitivity, but also from damage in high cortical systems: temporal and parietal cortex are particularly involved in the recognition of odors.



It can not be excluded limitations in the present results due to particular medication to explain some of the impairments and complementary studies are necessary. Nevertheless, previous studies on olfaction failed to find any effects of usual psychotropic medication (Martzke et al., 1997; Moberg et al., 1999; Pause et al., 2001, Rupp et al., 2003).



The main conclusion is that the here studied psychiatric diseases, although every of them may be characterized by depressive components, show divergent impairments in the olfactory perception and in its emotional correlates. These results suggest further studies in cerebral imaging in order to define the brain structures implied in these impairments. It is also possible to consider olfactory perception features as a complementary semiological information. Furthermore, it can not be excluded that the impairments of olfactory perception themselves generate some of symptoms of these psychiatric diseases, taking into account the influence of odor perception on emotions, mood, or behaviour.

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